The Bioeffective® story began in Russia in the 1930s. Their development is the outcome of research initiated to understand how conifer trees could remain evergreen and thrive in harsh climatic conditions found in Russia. It was discovered, that in conifer trees just as in our own bodies, specific combinations of compounds are responsible for health and vital functions. These complexes were later isolated and called Bioeffective®. Bioeffective® A is the first and original isolate of conifer green needles. It played a significant role in the survival of the population of Leningrad (St Petersburg) during a 900-day siege in World War II. Used topically as a treatment for wounds, burns and frostbite, and internally to treat infections and as a source of vitamins, it is widely regarded as having saved thousands from death through disease and starvation. From the end of the war until 1990, Bioeffective® A was used widely in Russia and at the same time, was the subject of 49 clinical trials involving some 6,000 patients aged from 7 to 84 years. These trials covered both systemic and topical applications. Throughout these trials, no side effects were observed and only 6 cases of individual intolerance were noted. These were all in topical applications where the substance was deliberately applied in concentrations greater than that required for therapeutic efficacy. Later, a number of other Bioeffectives® were developed and trialed in medical, cosmetic, agricultural and veterinary applications. Several Bioeffectives® were registered as pharmaceuticals before being used on a national scale in Russia and Latvia. In 1986, three Bioeffectives® were used in combination by members of a medical rescue and decontamination team to enable them to survive exposure to extreme levels of radiation in the immediate aftermath of the Chernobyl disaster. Research into Bioeffectives® has been undertaken for approximately 80 years, involving more than 3.5 million PhD. and DSc. research hours in the areas of cancer, cardiovascular health, immune health, toxicology, microbial (bacterial/viral/fungus) infections, psychiatry and other conditions. In the early 1990s, just as the growing family of Bioeffectives® was reaching the stage where they could be commercialized fully, the process was halted by the social and political upheaval that was occurring in Eastern Europe. As a direct result of these events, research efforts were transferred to Australia with the objective of completing the commercialisation process and funding the ongoing research and development effort. The ongoing Bioeffectives® research program now constitutes the world’s largest and longest botanicals research program. Research into Bioeffective® has been undertaken for approximately 80 years, involving more than 3.5 million PhD. and DSc. research hours in the areas of cancer, cardiovascular health, immune health, toxicology, microbial (bacterial/viral/fungus) infections, psychiatry, and other conditions. Further scientific and clinical trials have led to a number of breakthroughs and potential breakthroughs in the development of low side effect treatments for many diseases. One Bioeffective® was registered by the Russian Ministry of Health in July 2007 as a highly effective yet low side effect treatment for the chronic liver disease. Other promising applications currently undergoing trials with different Bioeffectives® include prevention and treatment of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract; prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders; normalization of lipid metabolism; normalization of the immune system; treatment of bacterial, fungal and viral infections; treatment of chronic alcoholism and conditions associated with alcoholism; as well as the prevention and treatment of certain cancers. At the same time, a number of new Bioeffectives® have been developed, including powerful antioxidants and free radical scavengers, new anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial agents, a natural sun block and a novel enterosorbent. These will all be subjected to full clinical trials over the next few years.